Archive for Kyoto Protocol and IPCC

The Costa Rican PSA: A Viable Policy

By Geoff  Michael

There are a number of approaches for emissions mitigation from land use and land use change (LULUC). In this paper I summarize the current success and costs of the various incentives for LULUC emissions mitigation. As a reference point I compare the success of each policy toward getting net annual emissions from LULUC to zero, down from the current 5.39 Gt of CO2 emissions. At present, without a penalty for CO2 emissions from LULUC for non-annex countries, the only incentive to maintain the most biodiverse mature forests comes from payments for ecosystem services or for carbon sequestration.

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Creating Disincentives for Tropical Deforestation: A Myth?

By Baruani Mshale

Methodological and sovereignty concerns blocked the inclusion of avoided deforestation (AD) in Kyoto’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) during the first commitment period. AD in the tropics can avoid carbon emissions to the tune of 1.5 billion metric tons annually and provide multiple economic, livelihoods, social, and cultural benefits. To avoid tropical deforestation, we need to address create disincentives for deforestation. To achieve this we need to capture the full economic value of AD. This article attempts to derive an empirical economic model for estimating the net benefit of AD in the tropics. Using this model, I find out total net benefits of AD to be significantly higher when all benefits of AD are included compared to when only carbon sequestration is considered. However revenues from forest conversions such as for soybean plantations are higher than total AD value due to methodological limitations in capturing non-market forest products.

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Comparing China’s Impact on Global CO2 Emissions Based on Reductions from 1990 and 2000 Levels

By Craig Cammarata

Despite passing the United States as the largest contributor to global CO2 emissions in 2006, China is not classified as an Annex I country under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and therefore, is not required to reduce its CO2 emissions. This paper evaluates the impact that categorizing China as an Annex I country, and thus requiring China to report and reduce its CO2 emissions below a designated percentage of a base year, would have on global CO2 emissions. Specifically, the paper evaluates China’s projected reductions according to two base-year scenarios, 1990 and 2000 levels.

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An Introduction to Biomass, Biofuels, and Bioenergy and a Projected Outlook for Forest and Agricultural Biomass Production per State

By Russell Martin

Renewable energy is rapidly becoming a hot button topic among energy producers, environmentalists, end-use energy consumers, and other various groups. The topic is intriguing, promising, and puzzling. This review will introduce and briefly explain biomass, biofuels, and bioenergy production according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change definitions (IPCC 2007) followed by a projected outlook for the future production of biomass that can be converted into bioenergy on a per state basis using the 2007 Natural Resource Conservation Service’s Natural Resource Inventory and the projections from the 2005 Billion Ton Report. The projected outlook is intended to give readers an idea of the potential individual states have for producing biomass from forest and agricultural land resources according to the Billion Ton Report (USDOE/USDA 2005) and the Natural Resource Inventory (NRCS 2007).

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Additional Activities under Article 3.4 of Kyoto Protocol Current state of Agreements among Parties

By Mukesh Patir

Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol requires the Conference of Parties to the United Nation Framework Convention to decide upon modalities and rules for including additional activities to account for changes in greenhouse gas concentrations from Agriculture soil, Land use change and forestry. The Conference of parties came to agreements in its meetings in Bonn July 2001 and Montreal 2005 for a broad definition of some possible additional human induced activities under the Kyoto protocol article 3.4. However the current state of agreements among parties on these additional activities are not clearly mentioned and agreed upon for future commitment periods.

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Canada’s Kyoto Woes

By Laura Palombi

On August 24, 2007 the New York Times reported that the Canadian government released its first climate change plan, a requirement of Canada’s Kyoto Protocol Implementation Act. , The report should have outlined an action plan for meeting Kyoto targets; instead, it detailed reasons why Canada emissions will be 31% above the target in 2012. How did Canada get to this point?

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Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Requirements in China Under Annex 1 Scenario for Second Commitment Period of Kyoto Protocol

by Mark Ellis

At the UNFCCC’s 15th Conference of Parties in Copenhagen this December member nations will seek to assess Kyoto Protocol targets for the first commitment period (2008-2012) and establish a new set of agreements for the second commitment period (2013-2017). On the agenda will be a focused discussion on regulating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in developing, non-Annex 1 nations, where GHG emissions growth is expected to be most rapid. China sits atop the list of non-Annex 1 Parties currently exempt from binding emissions goals in the first commitment period, recently having superseded even the United States in annual GHG emissions. Given the push to regulate emissions in developing countries, paralleled by China’s economic growth, this report investigates the significance of choosing the base year should from which China would be required to reduce its GHG emissions should it become an Annex 1 Party.

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